The technology of fuel


7Special vehicles
traffic coordination

6Pre-refuelling operations
and equipment
and repair, specialized
transportation within
airport boundaries
4Continuous quality control
3Fuel storage
2Post-filtration fuel transfer
1Fuel unloading


Depending on regional infrastructure jet fuel is delivered to a fuelling facility:

  • – by railroad;
  • – by road;
  • – over pipeline;
  • – by river/sea oil carrier.
Upon delivery, the fuel passes through a set of incoming quality control procedures and is recorded as inventory once the necessary supporting documents have been drafted.


Post-filtration fuel transfer

The fuel is transferred to tanks after it has been filtered.


Fuel storage

Once the fuel has been transferred to tanks, it undergoes sedimentation (gravity-induced particle settling). A fuel sample is then analyzed in an on-site laboratory. If the results of quality testing are satisfactory, a quality pass is issued, and the fuel can then be either used for refuelling or long-term storage subject to subsequent continuous warehouse control.


Continuous quality control

Quality control is exercised at all stages of the jet fuel supply process – by visual inspection, instrumental verification, and via laboratory testing. The latter aims to establish whether there have been any significant changes in the quality of aviation fuels between the above stages, and whether the fuels are suitable for use in an aircraft. Quality assessment is conducted using representative samples from:

- transportation means (pipelines, railway tanks, oil carriers);

- tanks and other fuel storage containers;

- refuelling, filtration, and water trapping equipment.


Specialized vehicles and equipment maintenance and repair, specialized transportation within airport boundaries

All the necessary procedures related to maintenance and repair, as well as technical permissions for vehicles and equipment to be used for refuelling are overseen by the facility’s transportation and engineering service teams.


Pre-refuelling operations

Pre-refuelling operations involve transferring fuel from tanks to refueller trucks via loading points or delivering fuel into the Centralized Aircraft Refuelling System subject to filtration, water trapping, and on-apron quality check.


Special vehicles traffic coordination

Vehicle-assisted refuelling operations require close communication with the flight service to properly arrange apron traffic according to the established layout.


Refuelling/fuel offload

Refuelling is carried out with the use of specialized vehicles either employing their own jet fuel tanks or assisting CARS refuelling operations. The fuel may or may not contain anti-icing additives as required.

Refuelling operations can be completed with both vehicles which carry jet fuel tanks (refueller trucks) and hydrant dispensers which are used for connecting an aircraft’s filler well to a CARS pipeline. It is at this stage that the actual refuelling is carried out subject to filtration, water trapping, and measurement of the amount dispensed. Refuelling vehicles and equipment are configured to a suitable throughput and refuelling mode to avoid damage to the aircraft’s fuel system.